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6th century BC- 1st century BC

6th century BC

  • 509 BC Battle of Silva Arsia - the Romans defeated the forces of Tarquinii and Veii led by the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. One of the Roman consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, is killed in battle.
  • 502 BC Battle of Pometia - the Latins won over the Romans, one of the consuls badly wounded.

 5th century BC

  • 496 BC Battle of Lake Regillus - Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis defeats the Latins, led by Tarquinius Superbus.
  • 495 BC Battle of Aricia - consul Publius Servilius Priscus defeats the Aurunci.
  • 482 BC Battle of Antium - the Volscians defeat consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus.
  • 482 BC Battle of Longula - consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus defeats the Volscians the day after his defeat in the Battle of Antium.
  • 480 BC Battle of Veii (480 BC) - consuls Marcus Fabius Vibulanus and Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus win heavy battle against Veians and their Etruscan allies. Consul Gnaeus Manlius Cincinnatus and former consul Quintus Fabius are slain.
  • 477 BC Battle of the Cremera - All the Fabii except Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are killed in battle with the Veians
  • 509 BC Battle of Temple of Hope - consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with the Etruscans
  • 477 BC Battle of Colline Gate (477 BC) - consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus has indecisive victory over the Etruscans soon after the Battle of Temple of Hope
  • 458 BC Battle of Mons Algidus - Cincinnatus defeats the Aequi
  • 446 BC Battle of Corbione - Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus leads Roman troops to defeat the Aequi and the Volsci.

 4th century BC

  • 396 BC - Battle of Veii - Romans complete conquest of Etruscans
  • 390 BC - Battle of Allia River - Gauls defeat the Romans, then sack Rome.
  • 342 BC - Battle of Mount Gaurus - Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites.
  • 341 BC - Battle of Suessola - Roman consul Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites once more.
  • 339 BC - Battle of Vesuvius - Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus defeat the rebellious Latins.
  • 338 BC - Battle of Trifanum - Roman general T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins.
  • 321 BC - Battle of the Caudine Forks - Romans under Spurius Postumius Albinus and T. Verturius Calvinus are defeated by the Samnites under Gaius Pontius.
  • 316 BC - Battle of Lautulae - Romans are defeated by the Samnites.
  • 310 BC - Battle of Lake Vadimo - Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans.
  • 305 BC - Battle of Bovianum - Roman consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius decisively defeat the Samnites to end the Second Samnite War.

 3rd century BC

  • 298 BC - Battle of Camerinum - Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the first battle of the Third Samnite War.
  • 297 BC - Battle of Tifernum - Romans under Quintus Fabius Maximus and Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus defeat the Samnite army led by Gellius Statius
  • 295 BC - Battle of Sentinum - Romans under Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus defeat the Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace
  • 293 BC - Battle of Aquilonia - Romans decisively defeat the Samnites.
  • 285 BC - Battle of Arretium - A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls
  • 283 BC - Battle of Lake Vadimo - A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
  • 282 BC - Battle of Populonia - Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
  • 280 BC - Battle of Heraclea - First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost.
  • 279 BC - Battle of Asculum - Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans but once again suffers significant casualties in the process.
  • 275 BC - Battle of Beneventum - Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius.
  • 261 BC - Battle of Agrigentum - Carthaginian forces under Hannibal Gisco and Hanno are defeated by the Romans, who attain control of most of Sicily.
  • 260 BC –
    • Battle of the Lipari Islands - A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians
    • Battle of Mylae - A Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet, giving Rome control of the western Mediterranean.
  • 258 BC - Battle of Sulci - Minor Roman victory against the Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia.
  • 257 BC - Battle of Tyndaris - Naval victory of Rome over Carthage in Sicilian waters.
  • 256 BC -
    • Battle of Cape Ecnomus - A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus.
    • Battle of Adys - Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa
  • 255 BC - Battle of Tunis - Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured.
  • 251 BC - Battle of Panormus - Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus.
  • 249 BC - Battle of Drepana - Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat the fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher.
  • 242 BC - Battle of the Aegates Islands - Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War
  • 225 BC - Battle of Faesulae - Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy.
  • 224 BC - Battle of Telamon - Romans under Aemilius Papus and Gaius Atilius Regulus defeat the Gauls.
  • 222 BC - Battle of Clastidium - Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls.
  • 218 BC -
    • Summer - Battle of Lilybaeum - First naval clash between the navies of Carthage and Rome during the Second Punic War.
    • Fall - Battle of Cissa - Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco and gain control of the territory north of the Ebro River.
    • November - Battle of the Ticinus - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight.
    • 18 December - Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus with the use of an ambush.
  • 217 BC
    • Spring - Battle of Ebro River - In a surprise attack, Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania.
    • 24 June - Battle of Lake Trasimene - In another ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed.
    • Summer - Battle of Ager Falernus - Avoiding destruction with deceit, Hannibal escapes Fabius' trap in this small skirmish.
  • 216 BC -
    • 2 August - Battle of Cannae - Hannibal destroys the main Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art.
    • First Battle of Nola - Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal.
  • 215 BC - Second Battle of Nola - Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal.
  • 214 BC - Third Battle of Nola - Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal.
  • 212 BC -
    • First Battle of Capua - Hannibal defeats the consuls Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes
    • Battle of the Silarus - Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula.
    • Battle of Herdonia - Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius.
  • 211 BC -
    • Battle of the Upper Baetis - Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with the Carthaginians under Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca
    • Second Battle of Capua - Hannibal is not able to break the Roman siege of the city.
  • 210 BC -
    • Second Battle of Herdonia - Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed
    • Battle of Numistro - Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more
  • 209 BC -
    • Battle of Asculum - Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle
    • First Battle of Lamia - Romans defeated by Philip V of Macedon
    • Second Battle of Lamia - Romans defeated by Philip V once more
  • 208 BC - Battle of Baecula - Romans in Hispania (Iberia) under P. Cornelius Scipio the Younger defeat Hasdrubal Barca
  • 207 BC -
    • Battle of Grumentum - Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal, then escapes north to confront Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca, who has invaded Italy
    • Battle of the Metaurus - Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army.
    • Battle of Carmona - Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio besiege the city of Carmona and take it from Hasdrubal Gisco
  • 206 BC - Battle of Ilipa - Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania.
  • 204 BC - Battle of Crotona - Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy.
  • 203 BC - Battle of Bagbrades - Romans under Scipio defeat the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal is sent to return to Africa.
  • 202 BC, 19 October - Battle of Zama - Scipio Africanus Major decisively defeats Hannibal in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War
  • 200 BC - Battle of Cremona - Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul

 2nd century BC

  • 198 BC - Battle of the Aous - Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V
  • 197 BC - Battle of Cynoscephalae - Romans under Flamininus decisively defeats Philip in Thessaly
  • 194 BC -
    • Battle of Placentia - Roman victory over the Boian Gauls
    • Battle of Gythium - With some Roman assistance, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis
  • 193 BC - Battle of Mutina - Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat.
  • 191 BC - Battle of Thermopylae - Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeat Antiochus III the Great and force him to evacuate Greece
  • 190 BC -
    • Battle of the Eurymedon - Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle.
    • Battle of Myonessus - Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans
    • December, Battle of Magnesia - (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war.
  • 189 BC -
    • Battle of Mount Olympus - Romans under Gnaeus Manlius Vulso allied with Attalus II of Pergamum deliver a crushing defeat to an army of Galatian Gauls
    • Battle of Ancyra - Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra, in what was an almost identical repeat of the Battle of Mount Olympus.
  • 181 BC - Battle of Manlian Pass - Romans under Fulvius Flaccus defeat an army of Celtiberians.
  • 171 BC - Battle of Callicinus - Perseus of Macedon defeats a Roman army under Publius Licinius Crassus.
  • 168 BC, 22 June - Battle of Pydna - Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus defeat and capture Macedonian King Perseus, ending the Third Macedonian War
  • 148 BC - Second battle of Pydna - The forces of the Macedonian pretender Andriscus are defeated by the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in the decisive engagement of the Fourth Macedonian War
  • 146 BC -
    • Battle of Carthage ends: Scipio Africanus Minor captures and destroys Carthage, ending the Third Punic War
    • Battle of Corinth - Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of Critolaus, who is killed. Corinth is destroyed and Greece comes under direct Roman rule.
  • 109 BC - Battle of the Rhone River - Roman force under Marcus Junius Silanus are defeated by the Helvetii
  • 108 BC - Battle of the Muthul - Roman forces under Caecilius Metellus fight indecisively against the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia
  • 107 BC - Battle near Burdigala - Roman forces under Lucius Cassius Longinus are defeated by the Helvetii
  • 105 BC, 6 October - Battle of Arausio - Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus
  • 102 BC - Battle of Aquae Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence)- Romans under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons, with mass suicides among the captured women
  • 101 BC - Battle of Vercellae - Romans under Gaius Marius defeat the Cimbri, who are entirely annihilated.

1st century BC

  • 89 BC -
    • Battle of Fucine Lake - Roman forces under Lucius Porcius Cato are defeated by the Italian rebels in the Social War
    • Battle of Asculum - Roman army of C. Pompeius Strabo decisively defeats the rebels in the Social War.
  • 86 BC - Battle of Chaeronea - Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces of Archelaus in the First Mithridatic War
  • 85 BC - Battle of Orchomenus - Sulla again defeats Archelaus in the decisive battle of the First Mithridatic War.
  • 83 BC - Battle of Mount Tifata - Sulla defeats the popular forces of Caius Norbanus in the First Roman Civil War.
  • 82 BC - Battle of Colline Gate - Sulla defeats Samnites allied to the popular party in Rome in the decisive battle of the Civil War.
  • 80 BC - Battle of the Baetis River - Rebel forces under Quintus Sertorius defeat the legal Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias in Hispania.
  • 74 BC - Battle of Cyzicus - Roman forces under Lucius Lucullus defeat the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus
  • 72 BC - Battle of Cabira - Lucullus again defeats Mithridates, overrunning Pontus
  • 72 BC - Battle of Picenum - Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army led by Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus
  • 72 BC - Battle of Mutina I - Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat another army of Romans.
  • 71 BC - Battle of Campania - Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army.
  • 71 BC - Battle of Campania II - a Roman army under Marcus Crassus defeat Spartacus's army of slaves.
  • 71 BC - Battle of Silarus River - Marcus Crassus defeats the army of Spartacus.
  • 69 BC - Battle of Tigranocerta - Lucullus defeats the army of Tigranes II of Armenia, who was harbouring his father-in-law Mithridates VI of Pontus
  • 68 BC - Battle of Artaxata - Lucullus again defeats Tigranes.
  • 66 BC - Battle of the Lycus - Pompey the Great decisively defeats Mithridates VI, effectively ending the Third Mithridatic War
  • 62 BC, January - Battle of Pistoria - The forces of the conspirator Catiline are defeated by the loyal Roman armies under Gaius Antonius.
  • 58 BC -
    • June - Battle of the Arar (Saône) - Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii
    • July - Battle of Bibracte - Caesar again defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively.
    • September - Caesar decisively defeats the forces of the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus near modern Belfort
  • 57 BC -
    • Battle of the Axona (Aisne) - Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones.
    • Battle of the Sabis (Sambre) - Caesar defeats the Nervii.
  • 53 BC - Battle of Carrhae - Roman triumvir Crassus is disastrously defeated and killed by the Parthians. Crassus has molten gold poured down his throat by his captors. Starts the 500 years of Roman-Persian Wars.
  • 52 BC - Battle of Alesia - Caesar defeats the Gallic rebel Vercingetorix, completing the Roman conquest of Gallia Comata.
  • 49 BC -
    • June - Battle of Ilerda - Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
    • 24 August - Battle of the Bagradas River - Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
  • 48 BC -
    • 10 July - Battle of Dyrrhachium - Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
    • 9 August - Battle of Pharsalus - Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
  • 47 BC -
    • February - Battle of the Nile - Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
    • May - Battle of Zela - Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)
  • 46 BC -
    • 4 January - Battle of Ruspina - Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
    • 6 February - Battle of Thapsus - Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
  • 45 BC 17 March - Battle of Munda - In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
  • 43 BC -
    • 14 April - Battle of Forum Gallorum - Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
    • 21 April - Battle of Mutina II - Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
  • 42 BC -
    • 3 October - First Battle of Philippi - Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
    • 23 October - Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.
  • 41 BC - Battle of Perugia - Mark Antony's brother Lucius Antonius and his wife Fulvia are defeated by Octavian.
  • 36 BC - Battle of Naulochus - Octavian's fleet, under the command of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeats the forces of the rebel Sextus Pompeius.
  • 31 BC, 2 September - Battle of Actium - Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle near Greece
  • 11 BC - Battle of the Lupia River - Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany.

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