1st century AD- 6th century AD

1st century AD

  • 9, September - Battle of the Teutoburg Forest - German leader Arminius defeats the three Roman legions under the command of general Publius Quinctilius Varus; it is considered to be one of the worst defeats in their military history and an end to expansion into the frontier.
  • 16 - Battle of the Weser River Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius
  • 43 - Battle of the Medway - Claudius and general Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins
  • 49 - The Siege of Uspe - Roman auxiliaries under Julius Aquila and King Cotys besiege the rebel forces of Siraces and Mithridates
  • 50 - Battle of Caer Caradoc - British chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by the Romans under Ostorius Scapula.
  • 58 - Sack of Artaxata by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo during the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia
  • 59 - Capture of Tigranocerta by Corbulo.
  • 60 - Battle of Camulodunum - Boudica begins her uprising against the Romans by capturing and then sacking Camulodunum (modern day Colchester) then moves on Londinium (London).
  • 61 - Battle of Watling Street - The uprising of the British queen Boudica against the Romans is defeated by Suetonius Paullinus
  • 62 - Battle of Rhandeia - Romans under Lucius Caesennius Paetus are defeated by a Parthian-Armenian army under King Tiridates of Parthia.
  • 66 - Battle of Beth-Horon - Jewish forces led by Eleazar ben Simon defeat a Roman punitive force led by Cestius Gallus, Governor of Syria
  • 69 -
    • Winter - Battle of 'Forum Julii' Othonian forces defeat a small group of Vitellianist auxiliaries in Gallia Narbonensis
    • 14 April - Battle of Bedriacum - Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeats Emperor Otho and seizes the throne.
    • 24 October - Second Battle of Bedriacum - Forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.
  • 84 - Battle of Mons Graupius. Romans under Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeat the Caledonians.
  • 87-88 - Domitian's Dacian War (First Battle of Tapae)
    • 87 - Dacian King Decebalus crushes the Roman army at Tapae (today Transylvania, Romania), Legio V Alaudae and general Cornelius Fuscus perish in battle.
    • 88 - the Romans return and obtain a victory in the same battleground, but the offensive is halted and a peace treaty is concluded.

 2nd century

  • 101 - Second Battle of Tapae - Trajan defeats Decebalus, with heavy losses.
  • 102 - Battle of Tropheum Traiani - Adamclisi. Roman forces led by Trajan annihilate a mixed Dacian-Roxolano-Sarmatae army, with heavy casualties on the Roman side.
  • 106 - Battle of Sarmisegetuza - A Roman army led by Trajan conquers and destroys the Dacian capital. Part of Dacia is annexed to the Roman Empire.
  • 170 - Battle of Carnuntum - Marcomannic King Ballomar defeats the Roman Army and invade Italy .
  • 179 or 180 - Battle of Laugaricio - Marcus Valerius Maximianus defeats the Quadi in Slovakia .
  • 180 - Praetorian Prefect Teratenius Paternus defeats the Quadi .
  • 193 -
    • Battle of Cyzicus - Septimius Severus, the new Emperor, defeats his eastern rival Pescennius Niger
    • Battle of Nicaea - Severus again defeats Niger
  • 194 - Battle of Issus (194) - Severus finally defeats Niger.
  • 197, 17 February - Battle of Lugdunum - Emperor Septimius Severus defeats and kills his rival Clodius Albinus, securing full control over the Empire.

 3rd century

  • 217 - Battle of Nisibis (217) - Bloody stalemate between the Parthians and the Roman army under Emperor Macrinus.
  • 218, 18 June - Battle of Antioch - Varius Avitus defeats Emperor Macrinus to claim the throne under the name Elagabalus.
  • 238 - Battle of Carthage (238) - Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax defeat and kill his successor Gordian II.
  • 243 - Battle of Resaena - Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I.
  • 250 - Battle of Philippopolis - King Cuiva of the Goths defeats a Roman army.
  • 251, 1 July - Battle of Abrittus - Goths defeat and kill the Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus
  • 259 - Battle of Mediolanum -Emperor Gallienus decisively defeats the Alamanni that invaded Italy
  • 260 - Battle of Edessa - King Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian
  • 268 - Battle of Naissus - Emperor Gallienus and his generals Claudius and Aurelian decisively defeat the Goths.
  • 268 - Battle of Lake Benacus - Romans under Emperor Claudius II defeat the Alamanni
  • 271 -
    • Battle of Placentia - Emperor Aurelian is defeated by the Alamanni forces invading Italy
    • Battle of Fano - Aurelian defeats the Alamanni, who begin to retreat from Italy
    • Battle of Pavia (271) - Aurelian destroys the retreating Alamanni army.
  • 272 -
    • Battle of Immae - Aurelian defeats the army of Zenobia of Palmyra
    • Battle of Emesa - Aurelian decisively defeats Zenobia.
  • 274 - Battle of Châlons (274) - Aurelian defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus, reestablishing central control of the whole empire.
  • 285 - Battle of the Margus - The usurper Diocletian defeats the army of the Emperor Carinus, who is killed.
  • 296 - Battle of Callinicum - Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh.
  • 298 -
    • Battle of Lingones - Caesar Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alamanni
    • Battle of Vindonissa - Constantius again defeats the Alamanni

 4th century

  • 312 -
    • Battle of Turin - Constantine I defeats forces loyal to Maxentius.
    • Battle of Verona - Constantine I defeats more forces loyal to Maxentius.
    • 28 October - Battle of Milvian Bridge - Constantine I defeats Maxentius and takes control of Italy.
  • 313, 30 October - Battle of Tzirallum - In the eastern part of the Empire, the forces of Licinius defeat Maximinus.
  • 314, 8 October - Battle of Cibalae - Constantine defeats Licinius
  • 316 - Battle of Mardia - Constantine again defeats Licinius, who cedes Illyricum to Constantine.
  • 324 -
    • 3 July - Battle of Adrianople - Constantine defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium
    • July - Battle of the Hellespont - Flavius Julius Crispus, son of Constantine, defeats the naval forces of Licinius
    • 18 September - Battle of Chrysopolis - Constantine decisively defeats Licinius, establishing his sole control over the empire.
  • 344 - Battle of Singara - Emperor Constantius II fights an indecisive battle against King Shapur II of Persia (approximate date)
  • 351 - Battle of Mursa Major - Emperor Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius
  • 353 - Battle of Mons Seleucus - Final defeat of Magnentius by Constantius II
  • 356 - Battle of Reims - Caesar Julian is defeated by the Alamanni
  • 357 - Battle of Strasbourg - Julian expels the Alamanni from the Rhineland
  • 359 - Battle of Amida - Sassanids capture Amida from Romans
  • 363 - Battle of Ctesiphon - Emperor Julian defeats Shapur II of Persia outside the walls of the Persian capital, but is unable to take the city, and his death leads to an ultimate disaster on the retreat back to Roman territory.
  • 366 - Battle of Thyatira - The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius.
  • 367 - Battle of Solicinium - Romans under Emperor Valentinian I defeat yet another Alamanni incursion.
  • 377 - Battle of the Willows - Roman troops fight an inconclusive battle against the Goths
  • 378 -
    • Battle of Argentovaria - Western Emperor Gratianus is victorious over the Alamanni, yet again.
    • 9 August - Battle of Adrianople - Thervings under Fritigern defeat and kill the Eastern Emperor Valens
  • 380 - Battle of Thessalonica - The new Eastern Emperor, Theodosius I, is also defeated by the Thervings under Fritigern.
  • 388 - Battle of the Save - Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus.
  • 394, 6 September - Battle of the Frigidus - Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast.

 5th century

  • 402 6 April - Battle of Pollentia - Stilicho stymies the Visigoths under Alaric.
  • 402 June - Battle of Verona - Stilicho again defeats Alaric, who withdraws from Italy.
  • 406 31 December - Battle of Mainz - between the Franks "foederati" and an alliance of Vandals, Suevi and Alans.
  • 410 24 August - Sack of Rome - Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome.
  • 432 - Battle of Ravenna - Bonifacius defeats rival Roman general Flavius Aëtius, but is mortally wounded in the process.
  • 436 - Battle of Narbonne - Flavius Aëtius again defeats the Visigoths under Theodoric I.
  • 447 - Battle of the Utus - The East Romans narrowly repulse the attack of Attila the Hun in an indecisive battle.
  • 451 June - Battle of Châlons - The Romans under General Flavius Aëtius, and Visigoths under King Theodoric I, repulse the attack of Attila the Hun. Theodoric is killed in the battle.
  • 455 - Sack of Rome by Geiseric, King of the Vandals
  • 486 - Battle of Soissons - Clovis I defeats Syagrius, last Roman commander in Gaul, and annexes the Roman rump state into the Frankish realm.
  • 493 - Battle of Mons Badonicus - Romano-British under Ambrosius Aurelianus decisively defeat the Anglo-Saxon invaders.

 6th century

  • 526 to 532 - Iberian War - Sassanid Persian Empire defeats the Byzantine Roman Empire
    • 530 - Battle of Dara - Justinian I's commander Belisarius defeats the Persians
    • 531 - Battle of Callinicum - Persian spahbod Azarethes defeats Belisarius
  • 533 -
    • 13 September Battle of Ad Decimum (or "Battle of Carthage (533)") Belisarius defeats Vandals near Carthage
    • 15 December Battle of Tricamarum Belisarius defeats again the Vandals near Carthage.
  • 546 - Sack of Rome by Totila, King of the Ostrogoths
  • 552 - Battle of Taginae - Narses replaces Belisarius and defeats Ostrogoths under Totila
  • 553 - Battle of Mons Lactarius Narses defeats the Ostrogoths under Teia
  • 554, October - Battle of the Volturnus - Narses defeats the Franks
  • 586 - Battle of Solachon - Byzantine Empire defeats the Sassanid Empire

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